Analytical methods toxicological profile for rdx ncbi. I t was a secret wartime project, with a code name and an urgent mission. A composite explosive based on 1, 3, 5trinitro1, 3, 5triazinane rdx was. In order to reduce delivery time they have been designed around four of our standard ebw detonators and use common parts except for the explosive. For advice, contact a poisons information centre phone eg. This study examines the interactions between explosive environmental contaminants and marine seaweeds. The scope of this thesis includes studies done on the explosive rdx with tissue cultures of marine seaweeds, as well as studies on the explosive tnt with seaweed extracts.
The explosive yield of tnt is considered to be the standard measure of bombs and. Sampling and analytical methods, cyclonite rdx, pv25. Bulk explosives products for the defense, aerospace, mining. Composition a waxcoated, granular explosive consisting of rdx and plasticizing wax, composition a5 mixed with 1. Ignition and growth modeling of detonation reaction. Pdf preparation of tnt, rdx and ammonium nitrate standards. You can also choose from 20122016, 20172017, and 20072009 rdx, as well as from acura, honda, and ac rdx, and whether rdx is full set. Wholesale rdx explosives rdx explosives manufacturers. Semtex is a generalpurpose plastic explosive containing rdx and petn. Some explosive products now contain tnt, composition b, pentolite, tetryl, rdx, petn and other military type explosives which are extremely stable over a wide range of conditions for a long period of time.
Information regarding the chemical identity of rdx is located in table 41. A new method of preparing the high explosive rdx journal of. Rdx is a hard, white crystalline solid, insoluble in water and only slightly soluble in some other solvents. However, petn as sheet explosive and plasticized rdx c4, showed very little potential to contaminate surfaces, either by spillage or adhesion to glass. Rdx is a class c possible human carcinogen and has adverse effects on the. Rdx was combined with oils, waxes and other explosives, including 2,4. Rdx is a wellknown explosive and this synthesis is not novel. C4 is composed of explosives, plastic binder, plasticizer to make it malleable, and usually a marker or odorizing taggant chemical. Cdc niosh pocket guide to chemical hazards cyclonite. Is equipped to and capable of handling strong, dangerous acids, 2. Hmx, also called octogen, is a powerful and relatively insensitive nitroamine high explosive, chemically related to rdx. The fluospot also demonstrated high selectivity towards rdx, hmx and petn, as no significant. It is used in commercial blasting, demolition, and in certain military applications.
Rdx was widely used during world war il, often in explosive mixtures with tnt such torpex tnt 42%,rdx 40% and aluminium 18%. Rdx can be manufactured as a polymer bound, insensitive high explosive form that has reduced sensitivity to sympathetic detonation. Ddt behavior of waxed mixtures of rdx, hmx, and tetryl pdf. At bombmaking plants and ordnance testing ranges across the united states, rdx has spread into the soil and contaminated water supplies. Introduction to explosives for official use only c4. Holds a license for the manufacture of explosives, i strongly recommend that you do. First aid measures construction of the product normally prevents contact with explosive component, however, in the event of exposure. Sure it does inrease ob, but its a popular but false assumption that increasing the ob increases the vod. Rdx can be used alone or with other explosives, including petn. Studies on advanced rdxtatb based low vulnerable sheet. Aes produces fully compliant milspec bulk explosives for use in aerospace and military applications. Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, also known as rdx, cyclonite, hexogen, and t4, is an explosive nitroamine widely used in military and industrial applications.
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the analytical methods that are available for detecting, measuring, andor monitoring rdx, its metabolites, and other biomarkers of exposure and effect to rdx. New experimental data on detonation wave parameters and explosive. Rdx was used with tnt to fill bombs and shells during the second world war by both sides in order to create more powerful weapons. Rather, the intention is to identify wellestablished methods that are used as the standard methods of analysis. Fairly common materials always seem to have awsome effects on explosives in the average cookbook. Rdx is an organic compound with the formula o2nnch23. British chemists toiled with a tripodshaped bond of nitrogen and oxygen molecules linked by carbon and hydrogen they referred to as research department explosive a substance one and. The chemical name for rdx is 1,3trinitro1,3,5triazacyclohexane. Quite frankly, even if i did know, i would be very, very careful of who i give such information to, and i certainly would not publish such information on an open internet site for anyone to see.
Richard ryan from ratedrr demonstrates the power of rdx and gives a. Material safety data sheet cyclonite rdx, cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine 121824 60% r3, r25, r38 4. Eurenco produces rdx by the woolwich or bachmann process. A similar british plastic explosive, based on rdx but with different plasticizer than composition c4, is known as pe4 plastic explosive no. Trace detection of rdx, hmx and petn explosives using a. In its purest state, rdx is a white, crystalline solid, and when mixed with plasticizers and other ingredients it makes c4. Thermal decomposition of rdx and mixtures sciencedirect. Eventually, it would be used to blast through the hulls of hitlers uboats, blow gaping holes in enemy dams in the ruhr valley and knock out bridges, railroad tracks and power stations across nazioccupied europe. Chemically, it is classified as a nitramide, chemically similar to hmx. Rdx is the base for a number of common military explosives. Sensitive to percussion, its principal nonmilitary use is in blasting caps.
A new method of preparing the high explosive rdx journal. The intent is not to provide an exhaustive list of analytical methods. Rdx produced by the bachmann process usually contains about 812% hmx as an acceptable byproduct army 1984a, 1989. Rdx is a nitramine produced mainly for use in explosives hsdb 2009. Chemical structures of the explosives studied in the present work. Electrostaticspray preparation and properties of rdxdos composites. The testing and disposal of the nations weapons here in the us have poisoned drinking water supplies, rendered millions of acres of land unsafe or unusable, and jeopardized the health of often unwitting americans. The yield of hmx is about 5560%, with rdx as an impurity. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in serps. Major manufacturing of rdx began in the united states in 1943 during world war ii. Omek 9010 lecithin used as surfactant to aid dispersion and stabilization sensitivity tests performed. H370 causes damage to organs central nervous system by oral exposure h373 may cause damage to organs central nervous system through prolonged or repeated exposure oral.
We have experimentally determined the heats of explosion of a rdx. Rdx is a manmade chemical not occurring naturally in the environment. Rdx, abbreviation of research department explosive or royal demolition explosive, formally cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, also called cyclonite, hexogen, or t 4, powerful explosive, discovered by georg friedrich henning of germany and patented in 1898 but not used until world war ii, when most of the warring powers introduced it. Among the most powerful of conventional explosives in general use, rdx, short for royal demolition explosive or research department explosive, is also known as hexogen or cyclonite. How to make semtex semtex is a powerful explosive that is widely used by terrorists. It is a member of the nitramine class of organic nitrate explosives. Bachmann process for rdx was found to be richer in hmx than the united kingdoms rdx and there is a suggestion that this later led to a hmx plant being set up at rof bridgwater in 1955.
The false information about rdx the typical kewl scientific language the wrong vod for rdx at the end the bit about ammoniumnitrate. Contact editors choice calls for papers guest edited collections scientific reports top 100. Explosive, royal demolition explosive or royal dutch explosive. Like rdx, the compounds name is the subject of much speculation, having been variously listed as high melting explosive, her majestys explosive, highvelocity military explosive, or highmolecularweight rdx. Rdx was produced in enormous quantities at the government ownedcontractor operated. Pdf trends in explosive contamination researchgate. Anodized red cup these detonators are available on special order. The products include pure, desensitized and plastic bonded explosive compositions using hmx, hns, petn, rdx and tnt based explosives. Pdf nqr characteristics of an rdx plastic explosives simulant. Uptake and metabolism of the explosive rdx by the marine.
Rdx synonyms, rdx pronunciation, rdx translation, english dictionary definition of rdx. Cole and 2002 bali nightclub bombings recommended in alqaedas traditional curriculum of explosives training. Pdf biodegradation of the explosives tnt, rdx and hmx. Developing efficient detection methods for trace explosives has drawn intense. Rdx is a member of the class of nitramines, which are composed mostly of explosive compounds. It is used as an explosive and is also used in combination with other ingredients in explosives.
Rdx or research department explosive, also dubbed torpex, was surprisingly stable yet twice as powerful as tnt. Dec 18, 2017 but rdx, a powerful triumph of military ingenuity, has had an unwanted second life as an unusually persistent pollutant poisoning the american homeland. A more energetic explosive than tnt, it was used widely in world war ii and. Rdx is a synthetic chemical used primarily as a military explosive.
There are 762 suppliers who sells rdx on, mainly located in asia. A more energetic explosive than tnt, it was used widely in world war ii and remains common in military applications it is often used in mixtures with other explosives and plasticizers or. Looking for online definition of rdx or what rdx stands for. It is a white solid without smell or taste, widely used as an explosive. Rdx, also known as royal demolition explosive, cyclonite, hexogen and t4, is a synthetic product that does not occur naturally in the environment and belongs to a class of compounds known as explosive nitramines atsdr 2012. Relatively safe and inexpensive to manufacture, rdx was produced. M ajor manufacturing of rdx began in the united states in 1943 during world war ii with the rise in demand for improved explosives u.
Product identifier product name rdx chemical name cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine reach reg no. Pdf nqr characteristics of an rdx plastic explosives. Full blast how the highexplosive known as rdx helped. Semtex was developed and manufactured in czechoslovakia, originally under the name b 1 and then under the semtex designation since 1964, labeled as semtex 1a, since 1967 as semtex h and since 1987 as semtex 10. Rdx forms the base for a number of common military explosives. Richard ryan from ratedrr demonstrates the power of rdx and gives a bit of background information on its relation to tnt. Identification of the substancemixture and of the companyundertaking date issued 06. Sorry knightbanner, but you really should know better than to. Trinitrotoluene or more specifically 2,4,6trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the. It is often mixed with other substances to decrease its sensitivity. The explosive compound rdx may be the greatest threat to the. Chemically, it is hexahydro1,3,5trinitro1,3,5triazine. Granular explosive consisting of rdx and plasticizing wax, such as composition a3 91% rdx coated with 9% wax and composition a5 98. Nomenclature variants include cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine and cyclotrimethylene trinitramine.
Abrahm lustgarten is a former staff writer and contributor for fortune, and has written for salon, esquire, the washington post and the new york times since receiving his masters in journalism from columbia university in 2003. Available in all standard grain sizes, rdx is used in a variety of military applications. It exists as a hard, white crystalline solid that is usually ground into a powder. A general theory of explosives is that the detonation of the explosives charge causes. C4 or composition c4 is a common variety of the plastic explosive family known as composition c. Bulk explosives products for the defense, aerospace.
Additionally, other newer explosive materials contain inhibitors andor stabilizers that lengthen the shelf life of the products. A photograph showing increasing levels of fluorescence quenching of the three sets of fluospots upon increasing the amounts of rdx, hmx and petn. Hmx for temperature requirements max 400f205c, 1 hour, note. Used in a wide range of compositions, rdx represents the best solution for both performance and cost. Rdx is believed to have been used in many bomb plots, including terrorist plots. Is knowledgeable about how to keep the reaction under control, 3. A meta description is an html tag in the html code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. The addition of an explosive ingredient, such as tnt, in sufficient quantity. Full blast how the highexplosive known as rdx helped the. Rdx is listed in the worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms the free dictionary. Dutch scenery getty images the united states has built the most powerful military in the world. Iirc, you would get hdn instead of rdx due to the lack of heating.
Rdx is an organic compound with the formula o 2 nnch 2 3. Hmx also an explosive is a contaminant of and associated with rdx manufacturing and collection. The acronym rdx stands for royal demolition explosive. Rdx contamination at cleanup sites or in drinking water supplies. Rdx creationwiki, the encyclopedia of creation science. Rdx cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine is a nitroamine organic high explosive. Beijings drive west and the campaign to remake tibet, a project that was funded in part by a grant from the. The explosive compound rdx may be the greatest threat to.
Eventually, it would be used to blast through the hulls of hitlers uboats, blow gaping holes in enemy dams in the ruhr valley and knock out bridges, railroad tracks and power stations across nazioccupied europe pioneered by chemists in germany in the late 19 th century. Nqr characteristics of an rdx plastic explosives simulant article pdf available in applied magnetic resonance 434. Hmx is currently produced at only one facility in the united states, the holston army ammunition plant in kingsport. Fracturing oil shale with explosives for in situ recovery pdf. Iupac nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general.599 130 1033 1144 924 1473 1018 1132 135 810 848 1175 302 1477 1040 51 335 1232 1297 1419 451 1353 1315 1439 221 1459 964 1189 505 1422 959 995 304 1171 825 1133 1157 909 1036 1394 130 390 1091 1261 408